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A hernia is an abnormal protrusion of internal organs from an abnormal opening in the wall of a cavity. The combination of increased body pressure and weak walls is the cause of this condition. In this condition, some of the internal organs or protruding organs form swelling, which occurs during coughing, weightlifting, defecation, and urination. In the recumbent position, the swelling progresses inward, except for hernias that cannot be relieved by choking.


1, weakness of the body wall:-

a) Congenital weakness.

b) Injuries, muscle wasting, purulent lesions on the walls, presence of weak natural openings, obesity, lack of exercise, weakness acquired by repeated pregnancies.

c) Surgery due to improper suturing from the surgical site or sepsis.

2) Increased pressure in the body.

a) Chronic constipation.

b) Cough repeatedly.

c) Lift the weight.

d) Urethral stricture.

Common parts of hernias:-

Hernias can occur anywhere in the body. However, there are some common sites for hernias. It is usually unaffected due to the presence of bones that cover the chest wall. Lumbar hernias are also rare due to the spine and back muscles, stiff ligaments and sheets. A common part of a hernia is the abdominal wall. Compared to other parts, the abdominal wall is weak due to the presence of some natural openings. There are several areas of weak and thin abdominal muscles, all of which allow hernias. The common parts of a hernia are:

a) Inguinal hernia:

Here, the contents of the stomach protrude from the inguinal canal (the part of the inferior abdominal wall just above the inguinal ligament, found on both sides). This type is common in men. Initially, swelling occurs only when pressed and returns when lying down. After that, most of the intestines may come out and not easily return.

b) Femoral hernia:

The type of hernia is common in women. Here, the contents of the stomach pass through the femoral canal, which is visible just below the junction between the thigh and the inferior epigastric wall (inside the femoral triangle). Its contents flow down through the sapphire openings in the thighs, forming swelling under the skin.

c) Umbilical hernia:

This is common in children. The navel is the weak part of the stomach. The contents of the stomach may stick out like bulbs that swell when you cry or defecate.

d) Incision hernia:

This hernia is found at the surgical site. Improper suturing or sepsis weakens the surgical site and causes hernias.

e) Epigastric hernia:

Here, hernias occur in the epigastrium. It is a rare type.

f) Waist hernia:

Here, hernias appear on both sides of the lumbar spine (lumbar triangle). This is also a rare type.

g) Hernia obstructor:

This is a rare type of hernia. Here, the contents pass through the obturator foramen of the pelvis.

Hernia complications:-

1) Choking:

A narrow opening in the hernia makes it difficult for the stomach contents to return and may structurally block blood flow to the hernia tissue. This can kill the intestinal bulge.

2) Intestinal obstruction:

This happens when the entire intestine swells into a hernia sac. A narrow opening in the hernia impedes the passage of the intestines.

3) Infectious diseases and peritonitis:

When part of the intestine dies and strangulation occurs, the infection spreads to the stomach and causes peritonitis.

Hernia treatment:-

Initial treatment: In the early stages of hernia, the following steps may help

1) Use of hernia belt:

A special type of hernia belt is available for each type of hernia. This prevents swelling and reduces pain.

2) Constipation, recurrent cough, urethral obstruction, etc. need to be treated.

3) Loss of fat increases the strength of the abdominal wall.

4) Abdominal exercises to increase muscle tension.

5) Eat lots of leafy vegetables, fruits and fiber foods to ease defecation.

6) Try other systems such as homeopathy and herbal medicine

If the above steps do not help, talk to your general surgeon about surgical management.

Surgical treatment.

Depending on the type and nature of the hernia, the following surgery will be performed.

1) Hernia incision: In this operation, the contents of the hernia sac are pushed into the stomach, the neck of the bag is tied with a fixed ligature, and the bag is cut.

2) Hernia repair: Here, the hernia repair is repaired along with the posterior wall.

3) Hernia plasty: This surgery is performed when a hernia incision is not possible due to the wide neck of the bag. Repairs are carried out here using non-absorbent materials such as tantalum gauze, polypropylene mesh and stainless steel mesh.

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